Components of Physical Fitness and Their Explanation

By | Maret 6, 2021
Components of Physical Fitness and Their Explanation

Daftar isi:

Many of us know and often hear about the term physical fitness. But many of us do not know what physical fitness is all about. The essence of physical fitness is what the body needs to achieve a fit body. For example, when the eyes are sleepy, then we have the right to rest the body first.

Components of Physical Fitness and Their Explanation

Components of Physical Fitness and Their Explanation

Physical fitness according to health organizations around the world is classified into two, namely:

  1. Healthy – is physically and mentally the body is free from all diseases.
  2. Fit – is a person’s ability to carry out activities or daily activities to the maximum, and still have energy reserves without experiencing excessive fatigue.

The depiction of a person’s health level is not only a function of physical fitness, but physical fitness also has a function to measure someone to carry out activities every day. Three things need to be considered in physical fitness, namely:

  1. Physical – has links to muscle, bone, and fat portions.
  2. Organ function – has a relationship with the effectiveness of the heart, blood vessels, and lung or respiratory system.
  3. Muscle Response – has a relationship with muscle speed, flexibility, weakness, and strength.

The physical fitness needed by everyone is different. This is because everyone’s activities are not the same, physical fitness will depend on the nature of the physical challenges faced. There are several constituent components of physical fitness that you need to know. The following are the 10 components of physical fitness along with a brief explanation of the form of exercise required.

Strength (Strength)

Strength is the ability of muscles when used to accept loads while doing activities or doing work. Muscle strength, both arm muscles and leg muscles can be obtained from continuous training with heavy weights and low frequency. Weight lifting can be used to train arm muscle strength. If the weight you use can only be lifted 8-12 times. The following are examples of exercises from exercises to increase strength or strength training:

  • Squat jump – this exercise can increase the strength of your leg muscles and abdominal muscles.
  • Push-ups – these can increase strength in your arm muscles.
  • Sit-ups – besides being able to shrink the stomach, this exercise can also make your abdominal muscles stronger.
  • Lifting weights – this exercise is used to strengthen arm muscles. Do these exercises with a little frequency.
  • Backups – just like sit-ups, back-ups can help increase the strength of your abdominal muscles.

Endurance (Endurance)

Endurance is the ability of a person to use the heart, lung or respiratory system and circulatory systems effectively and efficiently to carry out work continuously and never stop. In contrast to strength training, endurance can be trained with weights that are not too heavy, but with a long frequency and over a long duration of time.

Examples of exercises for physical fitness in the endurance section include running at least 2 km, running at least 12 minutes, running multistage, lifting weights with lightweight but multiplying the number, and running up and down hills or inclines and derivatives.

Muscle Power (Muscular Power)

The definition of muscle power is the ability of a person to use the maximum force exerted in a very short time. This can also be related to the anaerobic system in the process of fulfilling energy. Muscle power can also be called muscle explosive power or in English, it is explosive power.

Exercises that can increase muscle power include:

  • a vertical jump or the movement of jumping upwards can train the leg muscles explosive power.
  • front jump or movement to jump forward can also train the leg muscles explosive power.
  • side jump or movement to jump to the side, train the explosive power of the leg muscles.Common types of warm-up before exercise.

Speed ​​(Speed)

Speed ​​or also known as speed is the ability of a person to do the movement continuously or continuously in the same form for a short or relatively short time. Speed ​​is very much needed in sports for the 100-meter short run and the 200-meter short run.

Flexibility (Flexibility)

Flexibility or often called flexibility is the level of a person’s adjustment to all work activities effectively and efficiently using good stretching of the body. If someone has good flexibility, then that person will be able to avoid injury. Injuries are not only experienced by someone who is exercising but can also occur to anyone who does physical activity suddenly. For example, taking a glass that is about to fall, if the person is flexible, the speed and accuracy of taking the glass will not cause injury. Examples of exercises or sports to increase flexibility include yoga, gymnastics, and swimming.

Agility (Agility)

Agility is a person’s ability to change position in a certain area. For example, moving from front to back then back to front, other than that from left to right or from side to front, to from left to center then to the front, and so on. A sport that relies heavily on agility is badminton. Badminton athletes are required to be able to take the shuttlecock wherever the opponent is pointing as long as it is still within the field line. So that badminton athletes are not only required to have good technique, agility is also one of the most important factors.

Coordination (Coordination)

Coordination is a person’s ability to integrate a variety of different movements and be able to coordinate all parts of the body well. An example of exercise from the physical fitness component of the coordination part is bouncing a tennis ball off the wall with the right hand then catching it again with the left hand and vice versa.

Balance (Balance)

Balance is the ability of a person to control the body so that the movements carried out can be performed properly and correctly. Gymnastics is a sport that relies on this balance. Other examples of exercises to improve inter-line balance are walking on a 10 cm wide wooden block that has a length of 10 meters, standing on one toe on tiptoe, or also with a candle stance.


Accuracy is a person’s ability to control the free movements of the body towards a target. Some examples of sports that require this accuracy are archery, bowling, soccer, and basketball. Soccer requires precision when kicking the ball into the opponent’s goal, as well as bowling and archery which have a target. Meanwhile, basketball requires accuracy when entering the ball into the opponent’s ring. Examples of exercises to improve accuracy include:

  • throws a tennis ball at the wall, previously the wall has been targeted or marked.
  • To be more specific, just practice accuracy by inserting the ball into the opponent’s ring for basketball.
  • for soccer with practice kicking the ball into the goal which is guarded by a goalkeeper so that accuracy can be calculated and has a challenge.

Reaction (Reaction)

The reaction is a person’s ability to act immediately and respond to stimuli that are captured by the senses. One of the exercises that can increase reaction is the sport of catching the ball.

If we always train in body fitness, there are many things we can get. Some of these benefits include improving blood circulation and heart performance, increasing endurance and body strength so that the body becomes energetic, has the right body response and reactions, reduces the risk of obesity, avoids injury, and many other benefits.