Proposal About How The Students Easy to Speak Using Vocabulary in Daily Activity

By | September 30, 2022

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A.    Background
of study
By using language, people can
communicate between ome amother. It means that language is a means of
communication to convey ideas, thought, opinions and feeling. It also used to
intreract and to strengthen relatiomship in the society. Now, language has very
important role in creating relation with many countres and nation.
English is a foreign language in
Indonesia that is taught to the students at schools and universities. In
addition, English is very important for its function as language of science. In
the global era of sciences and technology, English is also important for
information, communication and interaction in teaching learning process.
Word is the smallest element that
may be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or
practical meaning). This contrasts with a morpheme, which is the smallest unit
of meaning but will not necessarily stand on its own. A word may consist of a
single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several
(rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be
able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s,
-ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed). A complex word will typically include a root and
one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or
more than one root in a compound (black-board, rat-race). Words can be put
together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock),
clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too but he missed).
Vocabulary is the set of words
within a language that are familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually
develops with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for
communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one
of the largest challenges in learning a second language.
Sentence
is a combination of two or more words that result in a final understanding and
intonation patterns. Sentences can be divided again based on the type and
functions that will be described in another section. Examples such as full
sentences, incomplete sentences, passive sentences, imperative sentences,
compound sentences, and so forth. The following are examples of sentences in
general.
The
student learn English from primary until university level. They are know about
vocabulary but they don’t know how to use it. 
Because most of them thinking about what the grammar it’s right. They
can not identify the event or situasion in the sentence. So in this case I’m as
a teacher want to see how the student can speaking well.
B.     The
identification of the problem
In
this research, the problem can be identified as follows :
  1. How
    the student easy to speak using vocabulary in daily activity
  2. How
    the student easy difficulties to speak using vocabulary in daily activity

C.    Scope
and limitation

This research was focused on how to the student
speak using vocabulary in daily activity. 
The limitation of the vocabulary and words.
 

D.    The
formulation of the problem
The
problems of this study re formulated as follows :
  1. Are
    the student easy to  speak using
    vocabulary in daily activity ?
  2. What
    the difficulties for the student easy to speak using vocabulary in daily
    activity ?
     
E.     The
Objective of the study
The
objective of the study are :
  1. To
    find out the students’ easy to speak using vocabulary in daily activity
  2. To
    find out the difficulties for the students easy to speak using vocabulary in
    daily activity
     
F.     The
significance of the study
Findings
of this study are expected to be useful for
  1. Teacher to design teaching and lerning prosess, especially easy to speak using
    vocabulary in daily activity
  2. The student easy to fluent speak using vocabulary in daily activity
A. .
Theoretical Framework
1.
Description of Vocabulary
Vocabulary
is one of the language aspects which should be learnt.Learning vocabulary is
important because we are able to speak, write, and listennicely we have to know
vocabulary first. A person said to ‘know ‘ a word if theycan recognize its
meaning when they see it (Cameron, 2001: 75). It means that inlearning
vocabulary we have to know the meaning of it and also understand andcan use it
in sentence context.According to Red John (2000: 16) vocabulary is knowledge
involvesknowing the meanings of words and therefore the purpose of a vocabulary
test into find out whether the learners can match each word with a synonym,
adictionary – tape definition, or an equivalent word in their own language.In
learning vocabulary automatically we have to know the meaning of words it self
and can use it in sentences. Wilkins (1972: 130) states thatvocabulary learning
is learning to discriminate progressing the meaning of wordsin the target
language from the meanings of their nearest ‘equivalent’ in themother tongue.
It is also learning to make the most appropriate lexical choices for  particular linguistic and situational
context.
Surely,
there are some words in a sentence and those collections of wordsinclude to the
vocabulary because vocabulary is a list or collections of wordsarranged in
alphabetical order and explained. Those words could be Noun whichis usually
used as subject or object, Verb or it is usually used as predicate in
asentence, Adverbs etc.The sentence may be further divided according to the
functions of each wordhas in the subject – predicate relationship – each of
these functions is classified asa different part of speech. They are :
It
is one of most important part of speech. It is arrangement with theverb helps
to form the sentence core which is essential to everycomplete sentence. It
could be the name of person, place, thing or idea.Example :
It
is the word which expresses an action or a help to make a statement.Example :
a.
Mr. Herman is teachingmathematic.
b.
The students are playing football
It
is the word used to qualify noun or pronoun.Example :
b.
This magazine is expensive
It
is a word used for qualifying the meaning of verb, adjective, or another
adverb.Example :
a.
Mrs. Nurul is teaching in the classroom
b.
I go to campus at nine o’clock
It
is a word used to relate one word to another one, or one sentence toanother
one.Example :
a.
I have to called him beforeI go.
b.
Irma and I are student at untirta.
It
is the word which can take the place of a noun.Example :
It
is a word put into a sentence to express a sudden feeling of mind or emotion
a.Hurrah!I
am the winner.
b.Oh
my god, I can’t believe it’s real
3.
Material of vocabulary
In
learning vocabulary, there are some materials that relate withvocabulary like
word family, word classes, synonyms, antonyms that can helplearners in
comprehending vocabulary deeper.
Word
family is a word is constructed by adding prefix and suffix in baseword or
root. In word family, we discuss about affixes. There are two affixes.They are
prefix and suffix. Here is the explanation and example both of them.
Prefix
is a syllable added at the beginning of words to change their meaning. The
words of prefixes are un-, in-, dis-, mis-, re-, pre-, etc. the prefix un-and
in-, are the most common negative prefix which both mean not. Prefix mis-,means
wrong, pre-, means before, re-, means again, etc. the example words of prefixes
are 
Words
                                    Added
prefix              Meaning
Popular
                       Unpopular                   Not popular                
Active
                                    Inactive
                      Rotactive
Consistent
                  inconsistent                 Not consistent
Writing
                       Prewriting                   Before writing
For
example in sentence :
He
is not popular artist ( without prefix )
He
is unpopular artis (adding by prefix un – )
                        From the example, we can
see both of them have similar meaning, but thedifference only in the “popular”
word. In the first sentence, the popular word doesnot use prefix but it used to
be + Not to express negative meaning. While in thesecond sentence, the popular
word is added by prefix un-to express negativemeaning too, the word become
unpopular.
Suffix
is syllable added at the end of words to change their meaning or their part of
speech. The words of suffix are -ment, -ion, -ness, -less, -er/-or, -ist,etc.
the suffix –ment, -er /-or, and –ist are changed verb form becomes noun.
Theexample is act (Verb) added suffix or becomes actor (Noun), etc. while
thesuffixness is used to change adjective form becomes noun. The example is
weak (Adj) added suffix ness becomes weakness (Noun). While the suffix less
meanswithout. The example words of suffix are :
Word
              Added suffix
Art
                  Artist
Direct
             Director
Use
                 Useless
Kind
               kindness
For
example in sentence :
They
plays football in the yard (as  a verb )
They
a good football player (as a noun )
From
the example, we can see both of them have differences in the wordclasses. In
the first sentence, the word of play without added by suffix and theword class
is verb. It describes about what the noun does. While in the secondsentence,
the word play is added by suffix –er. So, the word class changes fromverb
(play) become noun (player). It indicates noun in the sentence.
In
learning, learners must be master in vocabulary. To improve students’vocabulary,
teacher taught the vocabulary in the classroom. According to Emerald(1981:
149), there are some steps in teaching and developing vocabulary tostudents :
  1. Present
    the word clearly written in a paper or write it on the blackboard.
  2. Pronounce
    the world for the child, making sure that he or she looks atthe words as it is
    pronounced.
  3. Have
    the child pronounce the word, a gain making sure that the childlooks at the
    word when it is pronounced.
  4. 4.Explain
    the meaning of the word and present the word in writtensentence context:
    a.Read
    the sentence to the students.
    b.Have
    the students read the sentence aloud.
    c.Have
    the students identify the word, underlined the word and giveits meaning.
  5. Have
    the students make a sentence using the word.
  6. Have
    the students look at the sentence and read it aloud
  7. Present
    the word in isolation again, let the students pronounce it andgive its meaning

5.
Tool for developing vocabulary
Dictionary
is one of tool for developing vocabulary. It gives theinformation of the meaning
of words alphabetically. It can be used as a last resortwhen guessing from
context’s strategies fail. But, it can also be used productively, both for
generating text and as resources for vocabulary acquisition. Its
usefulnessdepends on learners being able to access the information they contain
bothspeedily and accurately. There are some key skills in using dictionary
effectively :
1.Recognizing
feature of dictionary layout, such as use of alphabeticalorder, hard words,
grammar and pronunciation information, definition,etc
2.Discriminating
between the different meanings of words.
3.Cross-checking
(when using the bilingual dictionary) that thetranslation equivalent that is
offered is the best choice for the meaningthat is required.
4.Using
synonyms, antonyms and other information to narrow the choiceof best words for
the meaning intended.5.Inferring the spelling of an unfamiliar word from only
having heard it,in order to check its meaning in the dictionary.
6.
Mastery of students’ vocabulary
In
learning vocabulary, people will experience development each year appropriate
with their age. According to Richard (1989: 177) for native speakersof
language, they continue to expand their vocabulary in adulthood. In social
roleand mode of discourse taking place in adulthood, in vocabulary there is
continueddevelopment beyond the childhood years with adults constantly adding
new wordsto their vocabulary through reading, occupation, and other activities.
The
primary  period for conceptual
development, however, is early childhood Measurement of vocabulary knowledge is
difficult and it is onlyapproximately. According to Watts (1994) suggest that
the average child enterselementary school with a recognition vocabulary of
2.000 words, that at age 7 thishas reached some 7.000 words, so at age 14, the
child should be able to recognize14.000 words. According to Mackey (1965: 173)
the vocabulary of adults has been variously estimated at between 10.000 words
for non-academic adult to over 150.000 for a professional scientist. College
students are estimated to understandsome 60.000 to 100.000 words. Berry
estimates that for spoken English the average person speaking on a telephone
makes use of a vocabulary of only some2.000 words (Mackey, 1965).Meanwhile, for
Indonesian learners who learn English as one of foreignlanguage that is taught
in school, they have limited words or vocabulary that theynow or understand of
the language. So, they experience low development inexpanding the vocabularies.
Vocabulary
is one important aspect in learning a foreign language.Without a proportional
amount of vocabulary anyone will get trouble in her speaking, reading,
listening, and writing. Without a shred of doubt, the writer said that the
acquisition of vocabulary would help people in gaining, understanding, and also
enhancing the process of knowledgeable transfered for a better life.
Indisputably the chances for progress or success in any kind of fields, like
computers, technology, economy, politics, tourism, and educational increase
withthe size and applications of vocabulary.
A.   
Location and time
This
research was conducted at SMA Kemala Bhayangkari – 2 Rantauprpat, Jl cik
ditiro. The reason to choose this schools location of research was term of
accessibility and the same research is to collect data. This research was
carried out the eleven level class of 2010/2011.
B.    
Population and sample
The population of the
research was at the eleven level class of SMA Kemala Bhayangkari – 2
Rantauprapat at 2010/2011 academic year. The total of population was 90
studnts, which consisted of two classes.whereas class X a was 45 students and
class X b was 45 student.
            Based on Arikunto (2006 : 134) if the population consist
less than 100, it is better taken all of the students as a samples, so this
research will be more accurate. But if the population consist of more than 100.
The sample can be taken between 10 – 15 % or 20 – 25 % of population or more.
It depend on time, energy and fund.
Descriptive
quantitative method was used in the research. This method useful for
identifying how the student to easy speak using vocabulary.
                 
D.    Instrument
of Research
The data will be collected through a
test. The test will be in form of written test, they are objective and essay
test. There are pre-test and post-test. The test is arranged according to the
material given and give they recitation for adding vocabulary every day.
E.     Technique
of Data Collection
To collect the data of this research, the researcher
was used the steps :
1. Give the test to the students.
2. Ask the student to what the
vocabulary that they have
3. scoring the students answer.
To score who has a lot of knowing
vocabulary I willl give maximal score.
4. Calculating the mean of the score
∑  xi    =
Total of the students’ score
n
         = total of the students’
F. Technique of Data
Analysis
            In analyzing the data, descriptive
technique was used in this technique the students’s abilityy was analyzed
based on following stages :
1.
counting of the percentage of the students’ score
2.
Calculating the percentage of the students’ tha have many vocabulary
       100%
Q    = percentage of the students’ that can and
can’t
x     = The total of students’ can and can’t
y     = Number of students’
3.       
Determining the
students’ difficulties by using the following criteria.
Hamalik in Cokro Aminoto (2010: 30) says that the students is stated as
able when she or he is able to answer more than 65% namely :
   Therefore, those who gets the
status good or above then stated as able. Whereas, those get status poor and
very poor then stated as unable.