For Muslims, zakat is an obligation if it is fulfilled. So, what are the different kinds of zakat and how are they calculated? Check out the explanation below
Zakat, according to the Third Series of Zakat Guidelines for the Ministry of Religion, is “something that is given by people as the right of Allah to those who are entitled to receive, among others, the poor, according to the provisions of the Islamic religion”.
For Muslims, each of you is obliged to give alms from the sustenance given by Allah. This is an obligation and cannot be denied because it is written in the Al-Qur’an.
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Zakat has been obligatory under Islamic law since 662 AD when the prophet Muhammad SAW set zakat in stages for the rich to help alleviate the burden of life for the poor and all arrangements regarding the amount of zakat.
Now, for the types of zakat itself, consider the following types!
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Types of Zakat
For Muslims who are economically able to meet their needs, they are obliged to set aside some of the assets they get and have.
A person must meet the requirements before being able to pay zakat, such as being Muslim, of course, independent, mature and sensible, not in debt, and has reached nishab (the minimum limit of compulsory zakat on assets that must be zakat).
Now, after fulfilling the requirements, then you also have to meet the legal requirements for the implementation of zakat, namely intention and tamlik. If it is valid, then you can pay zakat. Here’s the explanation.
The first type of zakat is zakat fitrah. This type of zakat is obliged to be related to fasting in the month of Ramadan, which is once a year. This type of zakat is also known as sadaqah fitrah.
The purpose of Zakat Fitrah
The use of zakat fitrah is to purify fasting people from useless actions and dirty speech, by giving food to the poor, helping to provide for their needs. This zakat law is mandatory.
The provisions of Zakat Fitrah
Zakat fitrah has its measure that every Muslim must spend, which is as much as one Sha ‘(about 2.5 Kg) of staple food.
Well, if in ancient times, it was known through various hadiths that there were provisions for zakat fitrah, namely dry dates, sya’ir, dry milk that was not removed from the foam, and wet dates.
There is also a history that establishes wheat, and cereals. However, nowadays Muslims pay zakat fitrah following the staple food applicable in their respective regions, food eaten in the morning and evening, such as rice and others.
Zakat Fitrah in the Present
With the development of the times, now zakat is more often paid with money, but it must still be by the value of the zakat fitrah obligation, namely foodstuffs.
This, according to some people, is because money is more istihsan (thinks it is better), and benefits the poor than food.
Zakat maal or zakat on assets is everything that humans want to own, use, and store. To pay zakat maal, you must meet the following conditions:
- Fully owned, not jointly.
- Free from debt.
- It’s been more than a year.
- Enough nisab (has reached a certain value).
- Has the potential to develop.
So, but not all forms of property are subject to compulsory zakat. Here are some of those who are subject to compulsory zakat:
Gold and Silver
Gold and silver that must be zoned for zakat are gold and silver which are sufficiently nishabnya and have been owned for a year. The calculation is the amount of zakat 2.5% of the value of gold. Suppose a person has 100gr of gold.
Livestock that is subject to the compulsory zakat are those that provide benefits to humans, are grazed (not employed), feed themselves through grazing, have been owned for one year, and have reached nishab.
The calculation of each farm animal is different. For example, a cow, if the number is up to 30 heads, then the zakat will be in the form of a female or male calf for one year.
Ziro’ah (Agriculture and All Products)
Agricultural products and all crops must be paid zakat if they reach a nishab of 5 wasaq or around 650 kg. Well, there are two kinds of zakat levels, natural and non-natural irrigation.
If it is non-natural, which is strengthened by human power, then the zakat level is 5%. If it is natural, that is, through rain or springs, then it is 10% of the zakat content.
Trade Zakat or Tijarah
Tijarah zakat is zakat related to commercial commodities. This zakat has provisions that are taken from the capital and are calculated from the sale of goods by 2.5%.
Zakat paid can be in the form of money for the price of goods or in the form of merchandise and can be paid in a cash periodic system.
So, those are some types of zakat that you must know, and don’t forget to fulfill all the provisions of zakat, yes, because they do not only purify yourself but also help others through zakat.